By ALAN CLENDENNING and BARRY HATTON | Associated Press Nov. 20, 2011
LISBON, Portugal — On a spring day in 1976, while hiding out in
Paris, an American member of the Black Liberation Army panicked.
Newspapers were trumpeting the arrest of four comrades who had helped him
hijack a plane. He needed to get out of France, and fast.
George Wright called together his secret network of friends — French
radicals and an American sympathizer. They hatched a plan: Wright would
slip quietly into Portugal by train and move on to one of its former
African colonies, where Marxism and hostility to the West meant he would
probably be safe.
The plan worked for decades. Then, in September, thanks to a fingerprint
from his past, it all came crashing down.
The tale of Wright's life on the run spans 41 years and three continents.
It starts in New Jersey with a prison break, moves to Algeria on the
hijacked plane, to Paris where he lived underground, to Lisbon where he
fell in love, to the tiny West African nation of Guinea-Bissau — and
finally to an idyllic Portuguese seaside village, where he built a life as
a respected family man.
It was there that he was arrested in September. But on Thursday, Wright
made another dramatic escape: A Portuguese court denied a U.S. request for
extradition, saying Wright is now Portuguese and the statute of
limitations on his crimes has expired.
At a press conference after he was freed from house arrest, Wright
declared himself "very happy, morally and spiritually." He said that he is
now a changed man, and that he had committed the hijacking "to fight for
The story of Wright's decades on the run was pieced together through
documents and interviews with 32 people who knew him, including his
Portuguese wife, a Black Panthers sympathizer who helped him in Paris,
former U.S. Embassy officials in Guinea Bissau, and the pilot of the plane
he hijacked at the start of his fugitive life.
Wright's odyssey has its roots in the fall of 1962, when he and three
associates were accused of committing multiple armed robberies in two New
Jersey towns and then holding up the Collingwood Park Esso gas station in
Wall Township, according to court records.
The gang shot and killed gas station owner and World War II veteran Walter
Patterson in a robbery that netted $70. Wright, then 19, and his
accomplices were indicted a month later.
Police said Wright and 22-year-old Walter McGhee each fired shots during
the holdup, and an autopsy showed Patterson died from McGhee's bullet,
according to a 1963 Associated Press article. Wright maintains he never
killed anyone, saying he never even opened fire.
Wright and McGhee pleaded not guilty, but later changed their pleas to "no
defense," meaning they did not admit guilt but did not contest the
charges. Wright said he entered the plea only to avoid the death penalty
or a life sentence.
McGhee was sentenced to life in prison with hard labor and Wright to up to
30 years. After rejecting Wright's appeal for a trial, a judge sent him to
the New Jersey State Prison.
Wright was eventually moved to a minimum security prison dairy farm. There
he met George Brown, a former forklift operator serving time for armed
On Aug. 22, 1970, the two waited until guards made their bed checks, then
simply walked out of the prison, which had no outer walls, and stole a
car. Wright's Portuguese wife, Maria do Rosario Valente, says he told her
they hotwired the warden's car to make their getaway.
The two resurfaced two years later in dramatic fashion — as members of the
underground Black Liberation Army militant group.
Wright, dressed as a priest, boarded a Detroit-to-Miami passenger flight,
along with Brown, another man, two women and three small children. The
group was armed with three handguns and took over the plane above
Savannah, Georgia, with Wright holding a cocked revolver against the neck
of a flight attendant, according to the pilot, retired Delta Air Lines
Capt. William May.
After landing, the hijackers demanded $1 million to release the
passengers, insisting that agents deliver the cash from the tarmac naked
as proof they weren't armed. May said he convinced Wright — who did most
of the talking and appeared to be the leader — that the agents should be
allowed to wear bathing suits.
Wright got angry during the negotiations, blurting out at about 12:30
p.m.: "If that money's not here by 2 o'clock, that's when I'm going to
start throwing dead bodies out the door."
The money was already en route from a bank to the airport. When it
arrived, Delta ramp supervisor Bernard Cooper and an FBI agent put on
swimming suits bought hastily near the airport; Cooper's was two sizes too
They headed to the plane with a suitcase stuffed with the money. An
emergency rope was dropped from the jet, the suitcase was pulled inside
and the passengers were set free.
The hijackers embarked on their trans-Atlantic getaway, smoking pot in the
first class section, where "they were like kids, counting the money and
frolicking about," May says.
They first forced the pilot to fly to Boston so an international navigator
— also dressed in a bathing suit — could board the plane and guide it to
Algeria, where they wanted political asylum. In the air, they crowed that
they were leaving decadent America, escaping the ghettoes and heading to
The hijackers chose Algeria because former Black Panther leader Eldridge
Cleaver was there at the time, say May and George Pumphrey, a former Black
Panther sympathizer now living in Germany.
Algeria gave the ransom money and the plane back to the United States, but
let Wright and his group stay, with their movements restricted to the
capital, Algiers. They moved on to Paris by early 1973 and got to know
Pumphrey, who was living there.
Helped by French sympathizers, Wright got a job as an electrician's
assistant, took French classes and used the alias "Alvin" with his
comrades. French police rounded them up in May 1976, but Wright wasn't
caught in the dragnet and contacted Pumphrey for help in fleeing France.
The French radicals provided Wright money for the train journey to
Portugal. It was the best escape route, Pumphrey says, because from there
Wright could try to get to Angola, Guinea-Bissau or Mozambique — all
recently liberated Portuguese colonies that would probably welcome Wright
and refuse to extradite him if asked.
Wright met his future wife on New Year's Eve, 1978, as the two waited to
get into a nightclub near Lisbon. She liked speaking English, and they
shared musical tastes, including the blues. She says all she knew about
him back then was that "he seemed to know his way around" Portugal, had
spent time in France, and was living with a friend in Lisbon and taking
Valente says her husband never told her about the hijacking or the robbery
that put him in jail until after his arrest in Portugal, a claim that
Wright's boss for nearly four years in Guinea-Bissau says stretches
belief. He did tell her he had once escaped from jail, but she thought he
He told her he wanted to head to Africa to explore his racial heritage,
inspired by the 1977 television series "Roots," about an African sent as a
slave to the United States and his descendants.
Guinea-Bissau tightly controlled foreigner entries, but Wright got a
letter of safe passage from a high-ranking Portuguese military official,
his wife says.
Valente, the daughter of a retired senior Portuguese army officer, says
she did not know the name of the official who helped her husband and would
not provide information on how to contact her father, who is now elderly
and in poor health.
While Valente insists she knew nothing about her husband's past when he
went to Guinea-Bissau, she is sure that the African nation's rulers were
aware of it because they decided to give him political asylum.
Wright left first for Guinea Bissau in 1980, where a new identity of Jose
Luis Jorge dos Santos awaited him, arranged by now-deceased Vasco Cabral,
a hero of the nation's struggle against Portuguese colonial rule, his wife
Valente followed later. She got a job teaching elementary school in the
capital, Bissau, while he worked as a government-employed basketball coach
and physical education teacher.
"He was there not under false pretenses. Everyone knew his past. They gave
him political asylum, a job, somewhere to live, so he wasn't hiding," she
says, while maintaining she herself was ignorant of his criminal past at
the time. Wright has also said he never told her about his past.
The two were close friends with members of the nation's Marxist political
elite, and Valente soon parlayed her knowledge of English into translation
jobs for the U.S. Embassy.
Bissau had a population of only about 250,000 at the time, and the
American expatriate community was tiny in the hardship post, where
electricity and water service were sporadic and finding decent food was a
Nine U.S. diplomats and embassy workers who served in Bissau in the 1980s
and early 1990s say Wright lived openly using his own name — but told The
Associated Press they knew nothing about his past.
Among them was John Blacken, a former U.S. ambassador who still lives in
Guinea-Bissau; he says he was never informed about Wright's past in any
cables from Washington.
Wright visited the embassy when his wife was working there. But officials
in Washington did not typically send embassies messages about fugitives
wanted in the United States, unless there was information indicating they
were in the country, says one diplomat who served at the embassy. And
Wright never drew attention to himself through a request for a new
passport, social security card or other embassy services.
The diplomat spoke on condition of anonymity because he still works for
the government and was not authorized to speak about Wright.
Wright also helped an American company to build more housing at the
American ambassador's residency compound, according to his wife and Edmee
Pastore, the embassy's administrative officer in the early 1990s.
The company had hired local construction workers, but the owner didn't
speak Portuguese, Pastore recalls.
"Along comes George Wright," she says. "He had learned enough Portuguese
to help these men do the work they were going to do. The upshot was these
houses finally got built, and people moved in."
It was Wright's connections in Bissau along with his language skills that
prompted Hannes Stegemann to hire him as logistics coordinator for a
Belgian nonprofit group running a fisheries project.
Wright told Stegemann and others about his conviction, his jail escape and
the hijacking — and was so open about his past that Stegemann finds it
difficult to believe U.S. officials in Guinea-Bissau and his own wife
didn't know about it.
In Guinea-Bissau's circle of political powerbrokers, Wright was seen as a
revolutionary, Stegemann says.
Among Wright's close friends was Bissau Mayor Manuel Saturnino da Costa, a
chess partner who lived two doors down from his home, say Stegemann and
Wright's wife. But Da Costa, reached in Bissau by telephone, denied he
knew Wright, even as "Jack the American" — the way many locals referred to
Wright and Valente didn't wed until 1990 in a civil ceremony in Bissau,
but Valente says in Guinea-Bissau people are considered married when they
The couple had a son, Marco, in 1986 and a daughter, Sara, in 1991.
Married to Valente and armed with his new identity as a citizen of
Guinea-Bissau, Wright obtained Portuguese citizenship. The couple moved to
Portugal in 1993 for a better education and safer environment for their
children, Valente said.
They set up home in Almocageme, a place of whitewashed walls and
terra-cotta roofs near a stunning beach, less than an hour's drive from
Townspeople interviewed by AP describe Wright as an affable family man and
regular churchgoer. Wright, who lived from odd jobs including decorative
painting, helped at charity events and played basketball with emigre
friends from Guinea-Bissau.
Wright didn't reveal his past in Portugal, even with his closest friends.
Andre Cameron, an American musician who has known Wright for two decades,
said he was "in shock" after Wright was detained.
Wright's peaceful life ended abruptly when Portuguese police turned up at
his small, two-storey house at the end of a quiet cobblestone street in
The FBI said he was detained after they provided Portuguese authorities
with a fingerprint that matched Wright's from the country's national
database of fingerprints, but have declined to say what prompted them to
look for Wright in Portugal.
Wright's sister came from the United States to visit her brother at least
three times over the years, raising speculation among Wright's friends in
Portugal that the two were in regular contact and that authorities picked
up on it.
Valente says Wright's two children learned about his past after his
arrest; they cried for their entire first 45-minute visit with him. Two
weeks after Wright's capture, he was released on house arrest with an
electronic monitoring system while the judge considered the U.S.
Despite the denial of the request Thursday, American authorities have said
they will keep fighting to get Wright to serve the rest of a 15- to
30-year murder sentence in New Jersey. But for now, Wright, who also
suffers from glaucoma, high blood pressure and chest pains, is free. He
said Thursday that he had wanted to tell his family his story for years,
but "I had a weight on my shoulders and I didn't want to transfer it onto
His freedom will not go down well with Ann Patterson, the New Jersey gas
station victim's 63-year-old daughter. She says she wants justice.
"This man has lived a 50-year lie," she says.
Clendenning reported from Madrid. Associated Press writers contributing to
this report included Tom Breen in Raleigh, North Carolina; Samantha Henry
in Newark, New Jersey; Geoff Mulvihill in Haddonfield, N.J.; Dan Sewell in
Cincinnati; and Jamey Keaten in Paris. Investigative researcher Randy
Herschaft contributed from New York.
Tuesday, November 22, 2011
By ALAN CLENDENNING and BARRY HATTON | Associated Press Nov. 20, 2011